All the human beings experience ups and downs and face different problems in life The individuals , usually get weak and unable when facing a problem and try with the aid and guide of the experts to save themselves from the trouble; And by finding the “examples” in any field , and then following them , perform their duties in the best way as to solve their problems and relieve their pains. One of these examples is the honoured prophet (p) whom the holy koran has described (indentified) as such. Other than the messenger of God (p) , if we look for another example and replacement for his holiness we would find a great example as the (leader of the) pious his holiness Imam Ali (p). Morals and behaviour, to go through his holiness ups and downs, and amazements of life.
Manner of birth:
His holiness Ali (p) is the first child in the family of Bani-Hashem whose both selfs are children of Hashem. His father Abu-Taleb is the son of Abdul-Mottaleb the son of Hashem bin Abd-Manaf and his mother is fatemah the daughter of Asad who is the son of Hashem bin abd-manaf. The Hashemi family in the tribe of Qoraish is well-known (famous) for its moral virtues and high (supreme) humanistic characteristics among the Arab tribes. Magnanimity, generosity, courage and so many other virtues are characteristics of Bani-hashem. Moreover, each of these virtues at its highest degree exist in his holiness Ali’s (p) existence. Fatemah, the daughter of Asad went to the holy mosque when labour pain and came close to the wall of Kabaa and said : O God, I have firm faith in you, the prophets and the books sent by you and also the speech of my grand father the builder of this house . O God, in consideration to the respect of the one who built this house and for the sake of the child in my womb make the birth of this child easy. An instant later, in front of the eyes of Abbass bin Abdul-Mottaleb and Yazeed bin Taaf the south east wall of Kabaa cracked and Fatemah entered the Kabaa; the wall closed again. She was the guest of God for three days in the holiest place in the universe and their she gave birth to her child. Three days after the thirteenth of Rajab, thirty years passed the year of the Elephat; Fatemah , the daughter of Asad, came out of the same cleavage in wall which opened again and said: I heared a message from the unsean to call him Ali.
Period of childhood:
His holiness Ali stayed with his selfs. Since it was God’s well for him to gain more perfection, therefore, the honoured prophet from the beginning of his birth took care of his indirect education. Untill an unsual famine occurred in Mecca. Abu-Taleb the uncle of the prophet having many children faced a heavy living expense. The honoured prophet (p) with the consultation of his uncle Abbass, came to agreement that each one of them take one of the children of Abu-Taleb with him as to make a relief for Abu-Taleb. Therefore Abbass took Jaffar and the prophet (p) took Ali (p) to his house. In this way his holiness Ali (p) was completely besides the prophet (p).
Ali (p) was always accompanying the prophet (p) even when the prophet (p) would leave to town and go to the mountain and desert.
Appointment of the prophet (p) and his holiness Ali (p):
There is no doubt that acceleration in good deeds is a kind of privilege virtue and (the exalted) God in several verses asked his salves to perform them and called them to compete with each other. One of the virtues of his holiness Ali (p) is that he is the first one to believe in the prophet (p). Ibn Abeel Al-Hadeed says related to this : Know that among the great , big and scholastic theologians of the Mutazilites there is no dispute that Ali bin Abee-Taleb is the first person to believe in Islam; and to support the messenger of God.
His holiness Ali (p) the first supporter to the honoured prophet (p) :
After the revelation of God , the selection of his holiness the prophet Mohammad (p) for prophethood and the three years of secret preaching, finally, the messenger of revelation arrived and the order for public preaching was given. At this juncture, his holiness Ali (p) was the only enforcer of the prophet (p) plans in his divine propagation; And was the only companion and sympathetic to his holiness in the invitation arranged to acquainte his relatives to Islam and to call them to the religion of God. In this invitation the prophet (p) asked the people present: “who is among you to help me in this way so to be my brother, successor and representative among you”. Only Ali (p) answered : “O prophet of God, I will support you in this way”. The prophet (p) after three times repeating the question and hearing the same answer said : O my relatives ; Know that Ali (p) is my brother , successor and Caliph after me among you. Of the other glories of his holiness Ali (p) is his perfect courage in sleeping in the prophet’s (p) bed , therefore, nullifing the plot of the idol- worshipers to kill the prophet; And , farthermore, prepared the ground for the prophet’s (p) migration. His holiness Ali (p) after the migration: After the migration of his holiness Ali (p) and the prophet (p) to Madina, we explain two examples of the virtues of Ali (p):
1- Sele-sacrifice and endangering in the field of struggle His presence in 26 battles of the 27 battles of the prophet (p) and participation in different expeditions are of the glories and virtues of his holiness.
2- Registering (keeping) and writing the revelation [koran]: Writing the revelation, organizing (arranging) many of the historical and political documents and writing propagational and invitation letters, both in Mecca and Madina, And for this reason he is considered one of the writers of the revelation and memorizers of the Koran.
It was in this period that the prophet (p) issued the decree of Moslems brotherhood, concluded the contract of brotherhood with his holiness Ali (p) and said to his holiness Ali (p): “You are my brother in this world and in the here after, swearing by the God who has appointed me with the truth. I choose you as my brother, a brotherhood that is to the extent of both worlds”. His holiness Ali (p) the son-in-law of the honoured prophet (p): Omar and Abu-Bakr with the consulation with Saad Maath the head of the tribe of Aws realized (found out) that there is no body other than Ali (p) competent (appropriate) for Zahra (p) . therefore, when Ali (p) was among the trees of the garden of one of the Ansar busy watering. They suggested this subject to him and he said : “I love the daughter of the prophet (p).” And went towards the house of the prophet (p) . When he reached to the honoured prophet (p) the glory of the presence of the prophet (p) prevented him from speaking until the honoured prophet (p) asked for the reason for his return; Then his holiness Ali (p) depending on his virtues , piety and bright past in Islam said: “do You deem it wise for me to marry Fatemah”. After the acceptance of Zahra (p) his holiness Ali (p) won becoming the son-in-law of the honoured prophet.
The pond of Khom :
In the last Year of his holiness the prophet’s (p) life , after finishing the rituals of piligrammage and when returning in a place called the Khom pond close to Johfa , he Ordered to stop, because the revelation commanded the prophet (p) to complete his message. After the noon prayer the prophet went up the (minbar) pulpit of the camels’ saddles and said: “O people, it is soon that I answer the call of God and go from among you. what do you think about me”. People said: “we witness that you have propagated the religion of God”. Prophet (p) said:” Don’t you witness that there is no God but the one God and Mohammad is his slave and messenger”. People said:”Yes, we witness”. Then the prophet (p) raised the hand of his holiness Ali (p) and said: “O People! among the believers who is more worthy than them selves. People said : “God and his prophet know better”. Then the prophet said:” O People who ever Iam his master and leader; Ali is his master and leader. And repeated this sentence three times. then the people congratulated this selection to his holiness Ali (p) and swore allegience to him.
His holiness ali (p) after the death of the honoured prophet (p) :
After the death of the honoured prophet (p) because of special conditions that arised, his holiness Ali (p) with draw from the scene of the society and choose silence; He neither participated in any struggle nor spoke officially in the society . He put the sword in the sheath and engaged with individual duties and educating the individuals.
Activities of Imam Ali (p) in this period were/briefly as follows :
1- Worshiping God , according to the level of his holiness Ali (p).
2- Interpretation of the koran, solving religious problems and decreeing the rule of incidents that didn’t have a resemblance along the 23 Years of the prophet’s life.
3- Answering to questions of scholars from other religions and other towns.
4- Expressing the rule for many of the new events which didn’t occur previously in Islam.
5- Solving the problems when the caliphate system faced dead ends in political matters and some other problems.
6- Educating and raising a group who have pure con science and prepared soal for spiritual journey.
7- Work and strife to secure the life of many of the poor and disabled to the extent that he would establish gardends and extract aqueducts and then would give them as endowments in the way of God.
Period of the caliphate of his holiness Ali (p) in the time of his holiness caliphate many wars occurred as Seffin, Jamal and Nahrawan which had specific consequences following. After the war of Nahrawan and the suppression of the Kharijites. Some of the Kharijities among whom was Abdul-Rahman bin Moljam Moradi and Barak bin Abdulla Tameemi and Amr bin Bakr-tameemi in one of the nights got together and considered the ciruims tances of that time the blood-sheds and civil wars and remembered Nahrawan and their deads and finally reached to this conclusion that the reason for this blood-shed and brothers killing are his holiness Ali (p), Moawiah and Amr bin Aass and if these three one removed the moslems will know there duties therefore, they concluded the treaty that each one of them he responsible for killing one of the three. Ibn Moljam undertook killing Imam Ali (p) and on the ninetheenth night of the month of Ramadan accompanied with some stayed in the mosque of Koofa. That night his holiness Ali (p) was a guest of his doughter’s and was aware of the morning accident. When he mentioned this subject to his daughter. Om-Kolthoom said: Tomorrow send Joada to the mosque. His holiness Ali (p) said: It is not possible to escape the Godly decree, then he fastened his belt and while humming these two verses he went to the mosque. Fasten your back firmly for death Because death will meet you and when death comes to you don’t fear or scream While his holiness Ali (p) was in prostation, Ibn Moljam hit him with the sword on his forehead and blood from his holiness head streamed in the altar and blood dyed his honoured beard. In this condition his holiness said: I swear by the God of Kaaba that I won. Then read verse 55 from soora Taha:
From it we created you and into it we shall send you back and from it we
raise you a second time. This holiness Ali was at his last moment of his life still thinking of the welfare and happiness of the peoples adviced his chidlren relatives and all the moslems saying : Idvice you of piety and to organize your deeds and always think of causing reconciliation among the moslems. Dont forget the orphans, regard the rights of the neighbours. Make Koran the practical programme for yourself. Respect (honour) praying because it is the pillar of your religion. His holiness Ali (p) attained martyrdom on the 21 st of the month of Ramadan and was burried in the honoured Najaf . His shrine became the tryst for the lovers of the truth and reality.
1- Soora Ahzab, verse:21.
2- Foroogh welayat, p.35 (kashf Al-Ghoma v.1 , p.9)
3- Aftab welayat, p.19 (Al-Kharaej and Al-Jaraeh v.1 , p.171)
4- Aftab welayat, p.19 (Behar Al-anwar v.35 , p.18)
5- Aftab welayat, p.37 (seerah bin Hesham v.1 , p.236)
6- Aftab welayat, p.38.
7- Aftab welayat, p.131 (Soora Bakara , verse:148)
8- Aftab welayat, p.86 (Mostadrak Hakem v.3 , p.14 Isteeaab , v.3 , p.35)
9- Aftab welayat, p.141 (Soora Maeda , verse:47)
10- Aftab welayat, p.697.
11- Aftab welayat, p.697 (Behar Al-Anwar quoting from Amali , v.9 , p.650)
12- Aftab welayat, p.697.